References

Dash for Offshore Renewables: Capturing the long term opportunity in Europe’s northern seas

 


 

1. EWEA (2013a) The European offshore wind industry – key trends and statistics 1st half 2013

2. Global cumulative installed capacity was 5.4 GW in 2012

3. EWEA (2013b) Deep water: the next step for offshore wind energy

4. Installed capacity of 13,400 MW annually in 2030. EWEA (2011) Wind in our Sails – The coming of Europe’s offshore wind energy industry 2011

5. E3G approximate calculation based on EWEA generation figure of 1,813 TWh annually in 2050 in EWEA (2013b). The European Commission’s Energy Roadmap 2050 forecasts electricity generation of 4621 TWh under Current Policy Initiatives scenario

6. EWEA (2011)

7. In 2011, solid fuels (coal and lignite) accounted for 866 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in public electricity and heat generation in EU-27. EEA (2013) Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2011 and inventory report 2013. Submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat. Technical report No 8/2013.

8. Based on 2009 figures

9. http://www.rolandberger.com/media/press_releases/Offshore_wind_power_central_to_energy_system.html

10. EWEA (2012a) Wind in our sails: the coming of Europe’s offshore wind energy industry

11. EWEA (2011)

12. EWEA (2011)

13. http://www.heraldscotland.com/business/markets-economy/oil-and-gas-firms-will-invest-44bn-in-north-sea.21388417

14. Carbon Trust (2008) Offshore wind power: big challenge, big opportunity. Maximising the environmental, economic and security benefits

15. Ernst & Young (2013) Renewable energy country attractiveness indices

16. EWEA (2013b)

17. UK Centre for Economic and Business Research (2012) Economic Impact of Offshore Wind

18. 51.9 billion DKK (€7 bn). http://www.windpower.org/en/knowledge/statistics/industry_statistics.html; http://www.dst.dk/en/Statistik/emner/udenrigshandel.aspx

19. The Offshore Valuation Group (2010)

20. EWEA (2011)

21. Ecofys (2011)

22. EWEA (2011)

23. Oil and Gas UK (2013) Economic report 2012

24. EWEA (2012a)

26. http://www.boell.de/downloads/ecology/Offshore_Wind_in_Bremen%281%29.pdf; http://www.gtai.de/GTAI/Content/EN/Meta/Events/Invest/2012/Reviews/Renewables/Downloads/Offshore-investoren-reise-hamburg-2012/presentation-offshore-cuxhaven_stiezel.pdf; http://www.bmwi.de/EN/Press/press-releases,did=444342.html?view=renderPrint

27. http://www.offshoreenergy.dk/offshoreenergy/news-media/on-off-magazines/article/esbjerg-is-denmark%E2%80%99s-energy-metropolis.aspx

28. ENTSO-E (2012) Regional Investment Plan North Sea 2012

29. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-DK-12-001/EN/KS-DK-12-001-EN.PDF

30. EEA (2009) Europe’s onshore and offshore wind energy potential: An assessment of environmental and economic constraints; European Commission (2012) EU Energy in Figures: Statistical Pocketbook 2012. Total oil and gas production in EU 27 is around 259 Mtoe (~3,000 TWh) in 2010. According to EEA, economically competitive potential for offshore wind in 2030 is 3,400 TWh. Technical potential for offshore wind in 2030 is estimated around 30,000 TWh.

31. Based on BP conversion factors 1 toe=12 MWh; 1million toe= 7.3 million barrel of oil eq. EEA (2009) estimates economically competitive offshore wind resources can generate 3400 TWH in 2030.

32. European Commission (2012) p.115

33. Oil and Gas UK (2013)

34. EWEA (2009) Pure Power: Wind energy targets for 2020 and 2030. Based on European Commission fuel price assumptions; higher range based on IEA fuel price assumptions

37. European Commission (2010) Europe 2020: A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM (March 2010).

38. GWEC (2013) Global wind statistics

39. EWEA (2013c) The European offshore wind industry – key trends and statistics 2012

40. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/sep/16/tidal-energy-scheme-northern-scotland; http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/jul/10/tidal-power-penland-firth-scotland-electricity

41. The study identifies five sub-categories within the overall wind patent families, including offshore wind energy, generator, gear-box & drive-train, energy storage, blades/wings, and software & control systems. Lee et al. (2009) Who Owns Our Low Carbon Future? Intellectual Property and Energy Technologies. Chatham House, London

42. European Climate Foundation (2011) Power Perspectives 2030: On the road to a decarbonised power sector

43. EWEA (2013b)

44. EWEA (2013c)

45. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/jul/26/offshore-turbine-britain46. http://www.siemens.com/press/en/feature/2012/energy/2012-07-rotorblade.php